I recently received an email from historian Megan Dohm. Megan had been conducting research in the archives of Richmond, Virginia, and located the original 1718 indictment of William Howard, Blackbeard’s quartermaster. She scanned the documents and sent them to me. Although I was familiar with a transcript of the documents, I had never seen copies of the originals. Megan is the author of “Long Way Around” (https://www.longwayaroundseries.com/), a thoughtful account of Blackbeard, piracy, and the connection to eastern North Carolina.

You can read a transcript of the indictment below the images (original spellings and inconsistencies retained).

Indictment of William Howard, 1718
Indictment of William Howard, 1718
Indictment of William Howard, 1718
Indictment of William Howard, 1718

Articles exhibited before the Honble his Majtsy Commr appointed under the great Seal in Pursuance of an Act of Parliament made in the Eleventh and twelfth years of the Reign of King William the third Entituled an Act for the more Effectual Suppression of Pyracy

William Howard For Pyracy and Robbery committed by him on the High Seas

That the Said Wm Howard not having the Fear of God before his Eyes nor Regarding the Allegiancy due to his Majesty nor the Just Obedience he Ow’d to the Laws of the Land did some time in the Year of our Lord 1717 Join and Associate him self with one Edward Tach and other Wicked and desolute Persons & with them did combine to fit out in Hostile manner a Certain Sloop or Vessel Call’d the Revenge to commit Pyracys and depridations upon the High Seas on the Subjects of our Lord the King and of other Princes & States in Amity with his Majesty trading in America

And                                                                                         2.

That in pursuance of the Said Felonious and Pyratical Combination the Said Willm Howard did together with his Associates and Confederates on or about the 29th day of Septr in the Year Afforesaid in an Hostile manner with force and Arms on the High Seas near Cape Charles in this Colony within the Jurisdiction of the Admiralty of this Court attack & force a Sloop Calld the Betty of Virginia belonging to the Subjects of our said Lord the King, and the said Sloop did then and there Rob and plunder of Certain Pipes of Medera Wine and other Goods and Merchandizes and thereafter the said Wm Howard did Sink and destroy the said Sloop with the  remaining Part of the Cargo.

That the Said Wm Howard and his Associates and Confederates did on or about the 22nd of Octor in the year aforesaid in the Bay of Delaware in America Wthin the Jurisdiction of the Admiralty of Great Brittain & of this Court pyratically take Seize and Rob the Sloop Robert of Philadelphia and the Ship Good Instant of Dublin both bound for Philadelphia aforesaid and divers goods and Merchandize then on board the sd Ship & Sloop belonging to the Subjects of our Lord the King did feloniously and piratically take seize and carry away.

That on or about the —– day of December the said Wm Howard and other of his Associates did Pyraticaly take and Seize the ship Concord of Saint Malo commanded by Capt D’Ocier belonging to the Subjects of the French King one of the Allyes of our Sovereign Lord the King near the Island of Saint Vincent in the West Indias within the Jurisdiction aforesaid and having Rob’d and feloniously spoiled the said Subjects of the French King of their Merchandize and Effects consisting of Negros Gold dust money Plate, and Jewels did Carry away the said Ship and Convert the Same towards the Carrying on and Prosecuting his the said Howards Pyratical designs.

That whereas his Sacred Majty by his Royal Proclamation bearing date at Hampton Court the 5th day of Septr and in the fourth year of his Reign was graciously pleased to promise and declare that all Pyrates surrendering themselves to Any of his Majtys Principal Secys of State in Great Brittain or Ireland or to any Government or Deputy Govr of his Majtys Plantations Beyond the Seas should have Majtys most Gracious Pardon for such Pyracys by them Committed before the fifth of January then next ensuing nevertheless the said Wm Howard not being Ignorant of his Majtys Gracious Intentions declar’d in the said Proclamation but Dispising his Majtys Royal offers of Mercy did after the said fifth of Jany continue to Perpetrate his wicked and Pyratical designs at sundry times and places more particularly he the said Wm Howard in Company with the afforesaid Edwd Tach and other their Confederates and associates in the afforesaid Ship called the Concord  of St Malo and afterwards denominated by the said Pyrates by the name of Queen Anns Revenge on or about the —— month of April 1718 a Sloop belonging to ye subjects of the King of Spain upon the high Seas near the Isld of Cuba did piratically take and seize ye same did detain and upon the ——- day of May in year of our Lord 1718 the Brginteen ——– of London bound on a Voyage from Guinea to South Carolina in and upon the high seas near the Post of the said province and within ye Jurisdiction aforesd did pyraticaly take and [seize] divers Negro Slaves & goods and Merchandise belonging to the Subjects of our said Lord the King did then and there feloniously take seize & carry away all which acts of Pyracy and premises are notoriously known to be true and for which the said Wm Howard ought by the Judgmt  and Sentence of this Court to suffer such pains Penalties and Forfeitures as by the Laws of Great Britain are inflicted upon Pyrats and robbers on the high seas.


Not long ago I was asked to write a short article about the “Ocracoke Orgy!”

Those two words conjure up widely divergent images: a quaint and wholesome Outer Banks village…and wild sexual and dipsomaniacal license. I couldn’t imagine a title or topic that would capture more reader attention.

However, lest you worry that our beloved village has become the center of uncontrolled sexual excess, and at the risk of losing readers attracted to National Enquirer sensationalism, I must reveal that the alleged orgy took place almost 300 years ago, in the fall of 1718.

Captain Charles Johnson published the first account of the orgy in his 1724 book, A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the most notorious Pyrates. Johnson’s book has been described as “a vivid and bloodthirsty account of a dozen English and Welsh pirates,” including Ocracoke’s best-known brigand, Edward Teach, popularly called Blackbeard, that recounted “graphic accounts of murder, torture and rape in exotic locations.”

Although the identity of Captain Johnson remains a mystery, most scholars agree he must have been a seaman of considerable knowledge and experience, perhaps even a privateer who frequently crossed paths with his subjects.

So what exactly transpired in the fall of 1718 on Ocracoke Island?

Less than a week after Blackbeard’s blockade of Charleston Harbor on June 4, 1718, the pirate captain wrecked the Queen Anne’s Revenge at Old Topsail Inlet. In a brilliant maneuver, Teach marooned the majority of his rag-tag crew, and took command of his smaller sloop, the Adventure. Accompanied by his closest associates, Teach absconded with their recent plunder. Blackbeard then surrendered to North Carolina Governor, Charles Eden, and received the king’s pardon.

In spite of the pardon, Teach was not done with piracy. In late August, in the Atlantic Ocean east of Bermuda, Blackbeard captured a French merchant ship laden with sugar, cocoa, cotton, and indigo dye. Rather than return to the Caribbean with his prize, Teach sailed north, bound for North Carolina where he knew he would receive a warm welcome from Governor Eden and his Secretary, Tobias Knight.

In early September the Adventure, passed through Ocracoke Inlet. The pirate crew remained at Ocracoke for several weeks, careening and repairing their ship. Meanwhile, Captain Teach paid a midnight visit to his friend, Tobias Knight, in Bath. A plan was hatched.

On September 24 a Vice-Admiralty Court heard the case of the French “sugar ship” which Blackbeard had unloaded and burned to the waterline.  Blackbeard claimed he had encountered the vessel abandoned on the high seas, and had burned her when it was discovered that she was leaking. Teach was cleared of any crimes, and allowed to keep the cargo. Of course, he was ordered to pay tariffs to the colonial government. In addition, Knight received twenty casks of sugar as a gift.

It was time to celebrate, and Ocracoke Island was the place to party. Mark R. Jones, in his 2005 book, Wicked Charleston: The Dark Side of the Holy City says this about what happened next:

“To celebrate his grand fortune, Blackbeard headed to Ocracoke Island. The Queen Anne’s Revenge [actually, Blackbeard was in command of the sloop Adventure at this time] was laden with food, rum and women picked up from the waterfront. Other notorious pirates, like Calico Jack Rackham and Charles Vane, arrived at Ocracoke with more women and rum. It soon became a huge, continual party that has become known as the ‘Ocracoke Orgy.’ Hundreds of pirates spent several weeks on the island drinking, eating and whoring with more than fifty wenches.”

The crews of Black Beard’s and Vane’s vessels carousing on the coast of Carolina

From The Pirates Own Book, 1837

As Robert E. Lee writes about the “pirate festival” in his 1974 book, Blackbeard the Pirate, A Reappraisal of His Life and Times, Teach was back at Ocracoke after his appearance at the Vice-Admiralty Court, and the notorious pirate captain, Charles Vane, was soon to join him.

In July Captain Vane had spurned the king’s pardon which had been offered by the Governor of the Bahamas. After attacking the Governor’s fleet, eluding capture, and plundering a number of vessels on the high seas, Vane sailed north to Ocracoke.

Lee writes that “Vane’s visit with Blackbeard…actually constituted the largest pirate festival ever held on the mainland of North America. Among the celebrities who attended the festivities near what is now the village of Ocracoke were Edward Teach, Israel Hands, Charles Vane, Robert Deal, and John Rackham, all of whom at some time during their lives had commanded a pirate ship.”

Lee calls Ocracoke a “pirate playground” where “hogs and cows were barbecued, and many of the fishermen and traders passing the inlet, upon seeing such a throng of people, stopped to trade with them and furnish them with fresh provisions.” Those provisions, Lee assures us, included “an ample supply of rum, and the punch bowls were never empty.”

Other writers describe the gathering as

  • “a weeklong bout of raucous festivities replete with wine, women, and song that some have called the ‘Ocracoke Orgy'” (Bruce Roberts and Sandra Clunies, in their 2002 book, Pirates of the Southern Coast¸ the earliest reference to the term “Ocracoke Orgy” that I have been able to document.)
  • “an infamous week of drunken debauchery and womanizing,” (Dr. Michael D. Hogan, in his article “Pirates of the Carolinas (Part V): Charles Vane, the Unluckiest Pirate of Them All” published in Southport Magazine), and
  • “the biggest gathering of pirates on the entire eastern seaboard…[where] wild and wicked sea villains chased women around the beach, while musicians played all night.” (Terrance Zepke, in his 2005 book, Pirates of the Carolinas)

Interestingly, the earliest mention of this pirate gathering, from the pen of Captain Charles Johnson (remember him from his 1724 book, A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the most notorious Pyrates?) says only that, “Captain Vane went into an inlet to the northward, where he met with Captain Thatch, or Teach, otherwise called Blackbeard,…and civilities passed for some days, when about the beginning of October, Vane took leave and sailed further to the northward.”

That’s it! Captain Vane and Captain Teach passed “civilities for some days.”

So what are we to make of the “Ocracoke Orgy” story?

No doubt a meeting of Blackbeard and Vane took place on Ocracoke Island, where Blackbeard was encamped in the fall of 1718.  Rum surely was involved; perhaps even barbecued hogs and cows.  If a few musicians were among the pirate crews…maybe a mouth harp, or a harmonica, even a concertina or a flute…there would have been rowdy sea shanties. Did merchant vessels stop for a bit of revelry? Who knows? More likely they kept their distance from a group of seasoned pirates.

What about “women picked up from the waterfront,” and scenes of “whoring with more than fifty wenches?”  Was it a “week of drunken debauchery and womanizing,” “a huge, continual party” with a “throng of people” coming and going, a time when “wild and wicked sea villains chased women around the beach, while musicians played all night?”

Kevin Duffus, author of The Last Days of Black Beard the Pirate, doesn’t think so. And I agree.

Duffus refers to the pirate gathering as a “banyon,” a traditional British Royal Navy term for a period of rest and relaxation. He envisions makeshift tents fashioned from sailcloth that were erected on the beach, and concurs that 18th century sailors would have eagerly hunted and roasted wild game, and gathered fresh oysters and other shellfish rather than eat the ship’s stores of worm-infested beef and moldy hard tack.

He points out that the woodcut pictured above debuted in an 1837 volume titled The Pirate’s Own Book, and seems to be the source of the exaggerated legends of “a weeklong bout of raucous festivities.” As Duffus points out, “The artist could hardly have imagined a more inaccurate scene.”

While Charles Vane may have brought one or two women to the gathering, there surely were not as many as depicted in the woodcut. After all, there was no village on the island at that time. Nor would the participants have been so nattily dressed, nor so prim and proper (consider the dignified fiddler). To emphasize his point, Duffus remarks on the sturdy wooden dining table (where did that come from?), and notes that one woman is even carrying a baby!

Surely there was a gathering of buccaneers on Ocracoke Island (probably on the soundside beach near present-day Springer’s Point) in late September or early October of 1718. But the “passing of civilities for some days” by the pirate crews of Charles Vane and Edward Teach hardly counts as an “Ocracoke Orgy.”

It does make for a colorful story, however.


Hardly anyone who has visited Ocracoke hasn’t heard about Blackbeard, the fiercest seafarer ever to fly the black flag of piracy.  The basic story is fairly well known:

  • Although virtually everyone knew the pirate as Blackbeard, he often went by the name Edward Teach, Tatch, or Theach….or even Edward Drummond.  There is little doubt that all of these monikers were aliases.  His real name may be permanently lost to history, but see below for some fascinating new research.
  • Historians suggest that he was of English descent, born perhaps in Bristol.  Some think he was from Jamaica, or even Philadelphia.  Again, no one actually knows.
  • During his brief career as a pirate (about 18 months in 1717 & 1718) Blackbeard terrorized shipping from the West Indies to New England.
  • Captain Teach appears to have been a close personal friend of North Carolina Governor Charles Eden and his secretary, Tobias Knight.
  • In November of 1718 Virginia’s governor, Alexander Spotswood, sent Lieutenant Robert Maynard of the British Royal Navy in pursuit of Blackbeard because Governor Eden was doing little or nothing to halt piracy along the Virginia – North Carolina coast.
  • Maynard caught up with Blackbeard as he lay anchored in Pamlico Sound, near Ocracoke Island.
  • During the battle (on November 22, 1718) Captain Teach took five pistol wounds and twenty cutlass & dagger wounds before he succumbed and had his head chopped off.  His crew immediately surrendered.  This effectively ended the “Golden Age of Piracy” in the colonies.

Black Beard:

There are, of course, many more stories about Blackbeard — how he got his start in piracy with Captain Hornigold in the West Indies, how he captured the French vessel, “Concorde,” and renamed her the “Queen Anne’s Revenge,” how he terrorized captains, crews, and passengers on numerous ships as he plundered their cargo, how he took fourteen wives, how he blockaded Charleston Harbor and demanded nothing more than medicines, how he scuttled the Queen Anne’s Revenge in Beaufort Inlet and marooned most of his crew, then fled to Ocracoke in the “Adventure,”….as well as many other stories.

Within the last several years I was alerted to a paper published in the North Carolina Genealogical Society’s Journal entitled “Legends of Black Beard and his Ties to Bath Town: A Study of Historical Events Using Genealogical Methodology.”¹   In it the authors argue that some evidence suggests that Blackbeard may have been native to eastern North Carolina.  It is a fascinating article, one worth more attention and research.  I will summarize the main points below.

Governor Charles Eden and his secretary, Tobias Knight, chief justice of the colony, both owned plantations on the west side of Bath Town Creek in Bath, the colonial capital of North Carolina.  Knight’s property lay at the mouth of the creek where it joined the Pamtico (Pamlico) River.  Just to the north was Governor Eden’s plantation. Next in line, across the narrow Whitby Creek, was the plantation of Captain James Beard. These plantations included 300 – 400 acres each.

An intriguing aspect of Governor Eden’s property is that a tunnel reputedly joined his cellar to the bank of the creek.  It was by means of this tunnel, many believe, that Blackbeard secretly carried a portion of his ill-gotten gains to the governor in exchange for protection from prosecution.

Black Beard’s Flag:

On September 5, 1717 King George signed his “Act of Grace,” an offer of amnesty designed to pardon any piratical acts committed after Queen Anne’s War.  The proclamation was signed on September 5, 1717 and extended for one year.

Blackbeard accepted the king’s “Act of Grace” in June of 1718.  Tellingly, Captain Teach chose to accept the pardon, not from Governor Woodes Rogers in the West Indies, as did most other buccaneers, but from Governor Charles Eden in Bath, NC.

Could it be, ask the authors of the genealogical journal, that the “inhabitants of Bath County did not see Black Beard as the rogue that history records”  because his home town was in Bath? This would explain why he decided to return to Bath to accept the king’s pardon there.  As the authors say, perhaps Black Beard “was just coming home.”

Intriguingly, Captain James Beard, Governor Eden’s neighbor on Bath Town Creek, had a son who was born about 1690.  This son, whose name has been lost to history, died between September 1718 and sometime in 1721, according to information gleaned from various deeds.  Could this son be the pirate who came to be known as Black Beard?

The Genealogical Society’s Journal article points out that Captain James Beard’s son may have chosen to identify himself by the appellation “Black” plus his own authentic surname.  As they say, “his own beard being black, he was able to play on this concept to good advantage, using it to terrorize his victims.”  They go on to ask, “Was irony involved in this man’s choice of an alias, just as there was irony in the selection of the name Queen Anne’s Revenge for Black Beard’s flagship?”  It seems entirely plausible to me.

Perhaps Captain Edward Teach, Black Beard the pirate, was actually a native of eastern North Carolina.  No doubt he knew these waters well.  Ocracoke was one of his favorite anchorages.  And his one-time quartermaster, William Howard, may have been the same individual who purchased Ocracoke Island four decades later, after Lieutenant Maynard put an end to piracy at what became known as Teach’s Hole.

This theory is at least worth further research.

Springer’s Point (Teach’s Hole channel is nearby):

¹ August, 2002 issue

All photos on this page courtesy of http://www.teachshole.com/