James Harvey Doxsee (1825-1907), sixth great grandson of Englishman James (“the Vicar”) Doxie, grew up on a four hundred acre farm in Islip, New York.

James Harvey Doxsee:

(Courtesy the Doxsee family.)

In 1865 at the age of 40 he established the first Doxsee Clam Factory in his hometown on Long Island. His canned clam chowder, whole clams, and clam juice were marketed under the name “Doxsee Pure Little Neck Clams.”

The Original Clam Factory in Islip, NY:

(Courtesy the Doxsee family.)

In the late 1800s, as the quantity of clams diminished in New York’s Great South Bay, one of James Harvey’s sons, John (b. 1868), began an independent ocean fishing enterprise that continues to operate today as the Doxsee Sea Clam Company.

Meanwhile, James Harvey’s eldest son, Henry (1851-1905), moved the main operation to Ocracoke Island in 1897/1898.  Henry and his wife Carrie had five children. At least two children, James Harvey (1876-1963), and Helen (1886-1971) accompanied their parents to Ocracoke.

The Doxsees built their new clam processing plant close to Pamlico Sound, on the southern shore of the “ditch” (the entrance to Cockle Creek) in Ocracoke village. It was, by island standards, a large operation. Local fishermen harvested clams, which they brought to the Doxsee’s dock. From there the clams were carried to a nearby building and steamed. The steamed clams were then taken to a long shed building and dumped onto wooden tables. Most of the island’s young, unmarried women, as well as several widows, worked at Doxsee’s picking clams. Empty shells were simply tossed out of the windows.

Doxsee Clam Factory, Ocracoke, NC:

Alton Ballance in his book, Ocracokers (see pages 223-225), relates the recollections of Miss Lillian Jackson who worked at the factory when she was a young woman. She explained that old Mr. Doxsee (Henry) would walk around the building looking for clams that had been thrown away. If he saw any he would throw them back through the window.

Picked clams were placed in wooden boxes. From there they were dumped into a tub to be washed twice. Next the clams were packed in their own juice. Finally lids were affixed to the cans before being shipped off the island. They were labeled as quahaugs, and were marketed as originating in Islip, NY.

An Early Doxsee Advertising Booklet:

(Courtesy the Doxsee family.)

The Doxsee Clam processing facility also had several other buildings including a hunting lodge, boarding house, and a private dwelling for Henry and his family. The house, two stories tall with an attic, faced Cockle Creek. Doxsee’s became a focal point for island social life when square dances were held at the lodge.

The Doxsee family attended the Methodist Episcopal Church and were remembered as friendly, outgoing people.

Soon after their arrival on the island Henry and Carrie’s newly married son, James Harvey Doxsee (1876-1963), and his wife, Lottie James Doxsee, bought property from the Tolers on the north side of Cockle Creek, and built a two story home there, where the Harborside cottage sits today. They had ten children, more than half of whom were born on Ocracoke. Their fourth child, Henry Birdsall Doxsee, was born 1905, and died 1907. He was buried in the yard, and later moved to the Community Cemetery.

By about 1910 clams in Pamlico Sound had become over-harvested and the factory was soon shut down. The operation was moved, first to Sea Level, North Carolina, and then, by 1911, to Marco Island, Florida. At least three Ocracoke natives associated with the Doxsees accompanied them to Florida: Charlie and Sue Scarborogh and their nephew Thad Gaskins. Charlie and Thad, both accomplished carpenters, helped build the Doxsee’s facilities on Marco Island.

The property on Ocracoke was abandoned. By 1930 the house was gone and everything of value carried off. The processing buildings and other structures were in serious disrepair, windows and doors having been removed by unknown persons.

Shard of Doxsee Glass Jar Found on Ocracoke in 2006:

Two members of the Doxsee family remained in North Carolina. James Harvey and Lottie’s daughter Carrie Viola Doxsee (b. 1899) married Samuel Harris from nearby Carteret County. Helen Doxsee (1886-1971) wed Ambrose Burgess, pastor of the Ocracoke Methodist Episcopal Church.

More information about the Doxsees and their clam factories can be found at the following web sites:



In September, 2009 Jan Auleta published a book, The Doxsee Legend, about the Doxsee family from Islip, NY.


A brief genealogy of the Doxsee family:

James Harvey Doxsee (1825-1907; Founder of the Doxsee Clam Factory in Islip, NY) m. Almira Smith

Henry Smith Doxsee (1851-1905)

Milton Spencer Doxsee (b. 1854; died before 1897)

Eugene Doxsee (b. 1856; died before 1897)


Children by second wife, Almira Smith Jennings:

John Cook Doxsee  (b. 1868)

John Harvey Doxsee (1871-1872)

Frank Cooper Doxsee (b. ca. 1872)

Frederick S. Doxsee (1874-1874)

Sarah Elsie Doxsee (b. 1879)

Grace E. Doxsee (1880-1881)

Almira Bell Doxsee (1885-1909)

Anna Jennings Doxsee (1886-1889)
Henry Smith Doxsee (1851-1905) m. Caroline Peters

Charles Oscar Doxsee (1874-1965)

James Harvey Doxsee (1876-1963)

William H. Doxsee (1879-1966)

Mabel Emma Doxsee (1884-1911)

Helen C. Doxsee (1886-1971)
James Harvey Doxsee (1876-1963) m. Lottie Mae James

Carrie Viola Doxsee (b. 1899)

James Harvey Doxsee (1900-1992)

Lottie Mae Doxsee

Henry Birdsall Doxsee (1905-1907)

Dorothy A. Doxsee

Ruth Emma Doxsee

Ralph Clinton Doxsee (1912- 2007)

Mabel Charlotte Doxsee

Nellie Robena Doxsee

John Irvin Doxsee


Prior to June of 1977 everyone living on Ocracoke Island relied on rainstorms and runoff from the roof for fresh drinking water.

According to oral tradition the first water storage containers were simply wooden barrels, undoubtedly gathered from sailing vessels or local stores after they had emptied them of vinegar, rum, or molasses, popular fare brought to the island from the Caribbean and other faraway places.

Rainwater, a scarce commodity especially during dry spells, was used only for drinking and cooking.

In times of prolonged drought islanders shared as they were able. Young children would be sent to a relative’s house (perhaps a single aunt or uncle with a large cistern) once a day carrying a bucket or pot. Those two or three gallons of drinking water would have to last a family the entire day.

Ground water, which typically was the color of tea, and had an odor, was used for all other endeavors, including washing and bathing, and to water gardens and animals. Ground water was available by simply digging primitive wells. Just a few feet below the surface lies an island-wide fresh water lens that is relatively easy to access. The color and odor mostly come from tree roots. Sometimes barrels would be stacked two high in the well to keep the sides from caving in. Alternatively, wooden planks would occasionally be used to line the well. Water was simply retrieved by tying a rope to a bucket and lowering it into the shallow well.

An Old Well Uncovered on Hatteras Island after the 1944 Hurricane:

One of the oldest maps of Ocracoke shows a well on Ocracoke Island. Presumably pirates and early settlers made use of this and other wells. (Note location of well immediately above “Ocacock” on map.)

Inset in “A New and Correct Map of the Province of North Carolina” by Edward Moseley, 1733:

To this day a low, round brick well, probably constructed in the nineteenth century, still stands at Springer’s Point as a reminder of a bygone era.

Well at Springer’s Point:

In later years “well points” were driven about 8 or 10 feet into the sand, and attached to a “pitcher pump.”  As mentioned above, ground water was used to water the garden and to provide water for animals, as well as for bathing.

An Island Ground Water Pitcher Pump:

(Click on photo to view larger image.)

During the later colonial period, and into the early twentieth century, more substantial wooden water troughs were used to store rainwater. Typically 12′-15′ long, 4′-5′ wide, and  2′-3′ deep, they were constructed of wide, thick planks of rough cut cypress or juniper. The seams were caulked with tar to prevent leakage.

Eventually large round wooden cisterns held together by iron bands replaced barrels and troughs. Some had flat wooden tops; others had more elaborate conical roofs…but the vertical planks were cut much like barrel staves. Oral tradition suggests that many of these cisterns were purchased from mail order houses as kits, and assembled in place.

A Flat-topped Wooden Cistern:

Ocracoke Conical-topped Cistern (dismantled in the 1970s):

Conical-topped Cistern Beside Schoolhouse on Portsmouth Island:

Still later, several varieties of brick cisterns became popular. James (Mr. Jim) Garrish and Thad Gaskins are remembered for building brick cisterns around the village. Some were plastered with cement; others were simply painted (typically white, or to match the color of the house trim).  Many brick cisterns were round with flat, wooden tops. Others had domed tops. A few were built like cubes.

Flat-topped Brick & Cement Cistern (with Pitcher Pump):

Large Cistern that Supplied the Navy Base in WWII:

A Brick & Stucco Cistern on Howard Street:

Round Top Cistern with Hatch & Pitcher Pump:

Cubicle Cistern “Down Point”:

Still other cisterns were rectangular with vaulted tops. At least one, now long gone, was shaped like a squatty soda bottle.

Domed and vaulted tops were constructed by first laying planking across the open top, then piling sand upon the planking, and molding it to the desired shape. After the bricks were laid on top of the sand, and had dried sufficiently, the planking and sand were removed from below by crawling through a man-sized hatch into the cistern. The hatch was later used to lower buckets into the water, and as access when the cistern needed to be cleaned (usually once a year, in the spring).

An Old Brick, Vaulted Top Cistern:

Brick, Vaulted Top Cistern on Howard Street:

Painted, Vaulted Top Cistern on Howard Street:

To prevent leaves, bugs, and other debris from entering the cisten most islanders covered the inlet hole with screen wire. But nothing could prevent mosquitoes from laying eggs in the drinking water. Tapping on the sides of a bucket of water would cause most of the larvae (“wigglers” to islanders) to settle to the bottom. Pouring water through cheese cloth was a more reliable method of eliminating the larvae (at least the majority of them).

Many of the cisterns had a pitcher pump installed on top of the structure, as well as one in the kitchen. It was not uncommon to leave a tin cup, ladle (sometimes made from half of a coconut shell [they freqently washed up on the beach] attached to a wooden handle), or a large conch shell nearby as a dipper. Ocracokers always referred to a conch with the opening on the left side as a “right handed” conch (shell books call these “left handed” conchs) because they could be easily grasped by the right hand for this purpose.

By the 1950s large rectangular cisterns were being constructed of concrete blocks, with reinforced concrete tops.

Cinder Block Cistern used as a Deck:

It was immediatly apparent that these cisterns would serve well as porches, especially if they were built against the house and outfitted with posts and a roof.  For more than twenty years this was the most popular type of cistern.

Cinder Block Cistern with Screened Porch Above:

Finally, in 1977, Ocracoke got a municipal water system. Nearly everyone who was eligible signed up, and cistern water was reserved for watering gardens and washing cars. However, because water mains were not extended to all outlying areas new construction there still relied on cisterns. By the last quarter of the twentieth century fiberglass tanks had replaced concrete cisterns.

Modern, Fiberglass Cistern in Oyster Creek Development:

Ocracoke’s water plant draws from three deep wells (620 – 640 feet deep) that tap into the Castle Hayne aquifer. At this writing the village has more than 1100 meters. The plant can produce more than 500,000 gallons of potable water daily, and can store 400,000 gallons in ground tanks, and 150,000 gallons in the elevated tank.

Ocracoke Water Tower:

In 2010 the Ocracoke Sanitary District, the administrator of the sophisticated reverse osmosis municipal system, announced plans to upgrade and expand the facility.


Upon a small sand hill, “Cedar Hammock” by name, on the north end of Ocracoke Island, the U.S. Life Saving Service established a new station in 1883. The village of Ocracoke, a tiny settlement of fewer than 400 people, lay 14 miles distant. Nothing but tidal flats, sea oat crowned sand dunes, several tidal creeks, a few hammocks protected by live oaks and scrag cedars, and a foot path lay between the station and the village.

1883 Cedar Hammock Life Saving Station (also called Ocracoke Station, and later, Hatteras Inlet Station):

James W. Howard was commissioned first keeper of the Ocracoke Life Saving Station. Six surfmen, all native islanders like the keeper, were assigned to the station from August through May. The men soon built modest homes surrounding the station, and brought their wives and families to live nearby. The Cedar Hammock community numbered about two dozen.

Keeper James W. Howard:

Keeper Howard, a former seafaring man, was 46 years old; his wife, Zilphia, a year younger. Although Zilphia had born twelve children, only Lorena (16 years old), Homer (15), Sabra (13), and Wheeler (7), had survived.

During his twenty years of service at Cedar Hammock keeper Howard and his crew demonstrated extraordinary courage and bravery, battling wind and tide to rescue hundreds of sailors from schooners and other vessels that wrecked on Ocracoke’s shore. During the off season, when the station was not manned, Captain Jim and his family returned to their home in Ocracoke village, where their ancestors had lived for more than a hundred years.

In 1884, Rev. Lawrence Olin Wyche, a native of Waynesville, NC, was assigned to Ocracoke’s Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The small, wood frame church and nearby parsonage were situated on Howard Street, just a few doors away from Captain Jim and Miss Zilphia’s village home. In 1884 Rev. Wyche was 32 years old, and unmarried.

The Ocracoke Methodist Episcopal Church, South (on Howard Street):

Rev. Wyche, by all accounts, was a remarkable man. Handsome, talented, educated, charismatic, and extremely personable, he was liked by all. Seventeen year old Lorena Howard immediately fell in love with her new pastor. Feelings were mutual, and the two were married in 1885.

Methodist preachers in those days seldom served one charge for more than a year or two, and Rev. Wyche was soon moved to the mainland where he ministered to congregants in “Jones Circuit,” five small churches in eastern North Carolina.

Lorena and Lawrence Wyche’s first child, Elsie, was born in 1886 on Ocracoke Island. Her brother, Ira Thomas, followed in 1887; and another sister, Martha (Mott), was born in 1893.

In 1897 Lorena Howard Wyche died suddenly, at the age of 31. She was buried in the church yard on Ocracoke. Since Rev. Wyche was still “riding the circuit” on the mainland, Captain Jim and Miss Zilphia assumed guardianship of Elsie, Ira, and Mott. During the “active season” the children accompanied their grandparents to Cedar Hammock. Their father returned to the island as often as possible.

Rev. Wyche was visiting his children in December of 1899. He had brought Christmas presents from the mainland, and was preparing to celebrate the holidays with his Ocracoke family, when the British steamship, Ariosto, ran aground on Christmas Eve. Most of the ship’s crew chose to abandon ship. Their life boats immediately capsized and they were thrown into the frigid ocean water. Twenty-one sailors drowned that terrible night. Had they all remained on board the ship all would almost certainly have been rescued. As it was, nine survived, thanks to heroic efforts by the Life Saving crew.

Rev. Wyche conducted Christian burials for the sailors whose bodies washed upon the beach. Christmas at Cedar Hammock was a somber celebration in 1899.

Tragically, just three and a half months later, Rev. Wyche died suddenly. He was buried in the Howard cemetery near his wife’s eight small brothers and sisters. Lorena’s body was soon disinterred and re-buried beside her husband.

Elsie, Ira, and Mott continued to live with their grandparents, on Howard Street during the summer, and at Cedar Hammock the rest of the year. An old horse stable near the station was converted to a schoolhouse, and a schoolmaster, “Captain Wilson,” was employed to instruct the children.

Ira’s uncle, Franklin Pierce Wyche, soon invited him to attend the Quackenbush School in Laurinburg, Scotland County, North Carolina, where Mr. Wyche was director. For a time Ira also attended the Trinity Park School in Durham, NC, under the administration of a young Methodist minister, Rev. W. W. Peele.

Upon graduation from high school Ira enrolled at the United States Military Academy at West Point. The Laurenburg School was so highly respected that a certificate of graduation from Quackenbush exempted Ira from taking an entrance examination. He graduated from the Academy June 13, 1911, and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 13th Infantry.

Over the next three and a half decades Ira Wyche’s career advanced steadily. During World War I he served with the American Expeditionary Force in France. In June of 1941 he assumed command of the 79th Division. In June of 1944 the 79th Division landed on Utah Beach in Normandy. General Wyche led his troops, often in fierce combat, across Europe and into Germany. During this time General Wyche worked closely with Field Marshall Mongomery, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Generals Eisenhower, Bradly, and Patton. The 79th was occupying Essen when Germany surrendered. At his retirement, in 1948, Wyche held the permanent rank of Major General, privileged to wear the two star insignia.

During his service, in addition to campaign ribbons, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal, the Silver Star, the Bronze Star with two oak leaf clusters, the Army Commendation Ribbon, and the French Order of the Legion of Honor, grade of Officer, Croiz-de-Guerre Avec Palm. (For more detailed information about General Wyche’s career see the bulleted highlights at the end of this article.)

Ira Thomas Wyche:

Insights into General Wyche’s character and personality can be gleaned from public records and various newspaper reports (undated and unattributed) that were collected and preserved by his elder sister Elsie.

One newspaper reports that “Maj. Gen. Ira T. Wyche…is a small, wiry, intense, red-faced man, and ‘very aggressive.’”

Maj. Gen. Ira T. Wyche Reading a Map During Combat:

A small booklet, “The Cross of Lorraine Division: The Story of the 79th”  (one of a series of G.I Stories published by the Stars & Stripes in Paris in 1944-1945), relates this story:

“Mopping up ‘Bloody Hill’ was the division’s final chore in the La Haye sector. There, Maj. Gen. I.T. Wyche, division commander, graphically displayed the caliber of leadership the 79th has enjoyed since activation. On one of his daily visits to the front, he found a platoon pinned to the slope. There was little or no cover and an understandable degree of disorganization prevailed. Repeatedly exposing himself to enemy fire, Gen. Wyche regrouped the men and led them a distance of two hedgerows to a position where they were enabled to knock out the strongpoint. At the peak of action he struggled in front of the battle line to help evacuate a wounded infantry scout.”

Another newspaper account mentions his “black hair” and “leathery face…wrinkled with lines of kindliness” and his “small stature” which belie his “mental vigor and quick action,” all of which “impress those in his presence.”

General Wyche:

The newspaper reports that “[e]ach day that he is in camp, the major general’s flag, with two stars, is displayed on each side of the entrance to the Seventy-Ninth Division headquarters.”

Major General’s Flag:

The account goes on to say that “General Wyche is a reticent man; his modesty does honor to the soldiers in his command. He would say nothing about himself; instead he recognizes his troops on every occasion.”

General Wyche was an accomplished horseman, a reflection of his early childhood on Ocracoke living with his grandfather, Captain Jim Howard, also an avid equestrian. The above quoted newspaper says that “General Wyche is fond of horses. His own mount died recently, but he rides his wife’s thoroughbred horse over the training area while observing troops.”

In spite of his “aggressive” nature, another press report says “General Wyche is one of the most popular officers in the Army, and his coming to the post [Fort Bragg] is always the signal for a round of social festivities.”

Earl O’Neal, in his book “Ocracoke Island, Its People, the U.S. Coast Guard and Navy Base During World War II,” writes that after Germany’s surrender in 1945 “General Wyche threw a farewell party for all unit commanders down to Battalion level at Neheim, Germany.”

Ocracokers are justly proud of “cousin Iry” as my father always referred to him, a native son who distinguished himself in the service of his country.

Highlights from General Ira Thomas Wyche’s life and career:

  • Service in a half dozen western Army camps from 1911 – 1918, including tours of duty in California and Alaska, and another with the Texas Border Patrol (1916-1918).
  • Marriage to Mary Louise Dunn, daughter of Colonel and Mrs. George M. Dunn, in 1917.
  • Service in France with the American Expeditionary Force during World War I where he served with the 60th Field Artillery as captain (then major and lieutenant colonel) in the St. Die sector of France.
  • Birth of his daughter, Elizabeth, November 15, 1919 in Washington, DC. (Elizabeth married Henry C. Flory who served as captain in the R.A.F. during World War II.)
  • Graduation from the Mounted Service School (1916), Field Artillery School (1924), Command and General Staff School (1925), and the Army War College (1934).
  • Instructor in various cavalry and field artillery branches of the Army, including regimental commander at Camp Jackson, S.C.
  • Military intelligence officer for the 4th Corps Area in Atlanta, Georgia.
  • Assistant Chief of Staff for plans, training and supply of 4th Corps.
  •  Service in the office of the Chief of Field Artillery (colonel), Washington, DC, 1940.
  • Commissioned Brigadier General (1941), and given command of the 74th Field Artillery Brigade, 4th Army Corps, at Camp Blanding, Florida.
  • Sent to Camp Pickett, Virginia to organize the 79th Division, May 3, 1941.
  • Formally assumed command of the 79th Division, June 15, 1941.
  • Commissioned Major General (commander of a division of 10,000 to 20,000 soldiers who is capable of fully independent field operation.), April 17, 1942.
  • The 79th Division (nicknamed the “Cross of Lorraine Division”) under command of General Wyche landed on Utah Beach, Normandy, June 12, 1944, spearheading the assault on Fort Du Roule, and helping to clear the Cherbourg area of Germans by June 28.
  • In July and August, 1944 the 79th marched 2,300 miles across Western Europe, fighting some of the Third Reich’s finest panzer and parachute divisions, as it made its way through France, and into the Belgian frontier.
  • By September 7, the 79th entered the Alsace-Lorraine region, and became embroiled in 128 days of bitter, almost continuous combat. By the middle of December they had fought their way into Germany, but were unable to penetrate the Siegfried Line.
  • In January of 1945 two regiments of the 79th met a formidable German offensive, and though the 79th lost ground, they inflicted so many casualties on the Germans that the offensive was halted.
  • In late February the 79th continued its advance, moving through Belgium and southern Holland, returning to Germany in the first week of March.
  • On March 24, 1945 the Cross of Lorraine Division crossed the Rhine River (this endeavor was codenamed “Operation Flashpoint”).
  • By April 11, the 79th was in the Ruhr area and occupied Essen.
  • After the surrender of Germany, on May 8, 1945, General Wyche was transferred to command the VIII Corps (Camp Gruber, OK) in Germany, which position he held until December, 1945.
  • During 1946 General Wyche served on the Officer Interview Board, commanded the III Corps at Camp Polk, LA, then became commanding officer of the 1st Service Command at Boston.
  • In January of 1947 President Truman appointed General Wyche Inspector General of the Army, the position he held until he retired in September, 1948. He was 61 years old.
  • After his retirement in 1948, General Wyche moved to Pinehurst, N.C.  He died in 1981 (two years after his wife) in Moore General Hospital following a stroke, and was buried in the Fort Bragg National Cemetery.



References include:





O’Neal, Earl, Ocracoke island Its People, the U.S. Coast Guard and Navy Base during World War II, copyright 2001 by Earl O’Neal

Charles W. Allison, James Wyche Family History, copyright 1955 by Charles W. Allison

Various nespaer articles (undateded and unattributed) from Elsie Wyche Tolson’s scrapbook